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Ella Fitzgerald

Jazz

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Ella Jane Fitzgerald (Newport News, Virgínia, 25 de abril de 1917 — Beverly Hills, Califórnia, 15 de junho de 1996) foi uma cantora estadunidense de jazz. Também conhecida como "Lady Ella" ou "A Primeira Dama da música", Ella Fitzgerald é a rainha do chamado scat. Mestra nas improvisações, cantava como um músico, usando a voz como um instrumento. Sempre dividiu opiniões sobre ser ou não a melhor vocalista do jazz da história com a não menos brilhante Sarah Vaughan, mas é, definitivamente, considerada a maior intérprete da música conhecida como "The Great American Songbook", o conjunto de composições americanas típicas da Brodway e de Hollywood no período de 1920 a 1960. Como é freqüente entre músicos de jazz, Ella teve uma infância difícil. Seus pais nunca se casaram e não ficaram juntos por muito tempo, o que fez com que ela tivesse que viver com o padrasto, que a maltratava. Aos quatorze anos perdeu a mãe e decidiu largar a escola, sendo, meses mais tarde, levada para um reformatório por vadiagem. Não fica lá por muito tempo, e foge voltando a viver nas ruas de Nova Iorque, cantando e dançando em troca de gorjetas. Em novembro de 1934 decidiu participar do show de calouros que acontecia no Apollo Theatre, no Harlem, e apesar de maltrapilha e nervosa, faturou o primeiro prêmio: duas semanas apresentando-se no teatro. No entanto o gerente lhe negou seu direito, por considerar Ella “muito feia”. Voltou a cantar em pequenos grupos, sem receber praticamente nada, até que o vocalista da banda do primeiro “rei do swing” Chick Webb, a levou para um teste com o bandleader, o qual, antes mesmo de ouví-la, repetindo o gerente do Apollo, disse ser Ella muito feia para cantar diante de sua banda. Após discutir com seu vocalista - que ameaçou deixar a banda caso não desse a Ella uma chance - ouve-a e faz o melhor negócio de sua vida, contratando-a. Em breve a banda de Chick Webb se apresentaria no Savoy, sendo um verdadeiro estouro. Ella gravou seu primeiro sucesso com Webb, “A-Tisket a-Tasket”, em 1938. Ella tinha uma voz doce com entonação de menina, extremo domínio da técnica vocal, swing e scat maravilhosos e a capacidade de percorrer as escalas ascendentes e descendentes com incomparável mestria. Some-se a isso o fato de que, apesar de sua infância difícil, cantava com contagiante alegria. Após a morte de Webb em 39, Ella assume o comando de sua orquestra até sua dissolução, cerca de dois anos mais tarde. Aos 19 anos já era considerada a primeira dama do jazz recebendo críticas extremamente elogiosas das maiores revistas de jazz dos EUA, o que a leva a ser contratada pelo produtor e dono de gravadoras (Verve/Pablo) Norman Granz, integrando o grupo Jazz At The Philharmonic gerenciado por ele. Granz torna-se seu empresário e, em 1956, começam a produzir uma serie de songbooks que tornaram ainda mais clássicos compositores como os irmãos Gershwin, Irving Berlin, Duke Ellington, Cole Porter e Tom Jobim, entre outros. Ella gravou três discos clássicos ao lado de Louis Armstrong (também produzidos por Granz): o primeiro chamado simplesmente Ella and Louis, o segundo Ella and Louis Again (de novo), cantando grandes canções da música americana acompanhados pelo trio de Oscar Peterson (que incluia seu marido Ray Brown), e o terceiro, Porgy and Bess, do musical negro de Gershwin, que dispensa comentários. Seus discos em dueto com Joe Pass são considerados dos biscoitos mais finos do jazz. Gozou de grande sucesso ao longo de toda sua vida - desde os primeiros dias no Savoy, passando pelos shows para universitários libertários nos anos 60, aos concertos lotados até sua morte, aos 79 anos em 1996. Com mais de 57 anos de gravações, ganhou o o décimo terceiro Grammy Award, a Medalha Nacional da Arte do presidente Ronald Reagan e a Medalha presidencial da Liberdade, do presidente George W. Bush Pai.

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